Opened in 1916, close to the former Royal Naval Air Station Narborough, later RAF Narborough, Marham was opened in August 1916 as a military night landing ground on an 80-acre (320,000 m2) site within the boundary of the present day RAF Marham. In 1916 the aerodrome was handed over to the Royal Flying Corps. The aerodrome was closed in 1919 when the last units moved out.
In 1935 work started on a new airfield, this became active on 1 April 1937, with a resident heavy bomber unit from within 3 Group, RAF Bomber Command. The first squadron, No 38, arrived in May 1937 with Fairey Hendon bombers. In June No. 115 Squadron RAF re-formed at Marham with the Handley Page Harrow while 38 Squadron received Wellington I bombers in December 1938, followed in 1939 by 115 Squadron.
During March 1944, Marham closed for the construction of new concrete runways, perimeter track, and dispersal areas, marking the end of its wartime operations.
In the postwar period the airfield was home to RAF units operating the Boeing Washington aircraft, and later the V-bomber force and tankers: Vickers Valiant and Handley Page Victor. The station is also one of the few large enough for the operation of United States Air Force Boeing B-52 and a number of these aircraft visited on exercises in the 1970s and 1980s.
During 1977, 24 Hardened Aircraft Shelters were constructed to house future strike aircraft, which would eventually see the arrival of the Panavia Tornado in 1982. These shelters were equipped with the US Weapon Storage Security System (WS3), each able to store 4 WE.177 nuclear bombs.
No. 138 Expeditionary Air Wing was formed at Marham on 1 April 2006 encompassing most of the non-formed unit personnel on the station. The EAW does not include the flying units at the station.
The current Station Commander is dual-hatted; as the commander of the Wing and Station.
Marham is currently under threat of closure.